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Sanskrit Glossary of Yogic Terms
This Sanskirt glossary contains a wealth of definitions of yoga and its related topics. Including philosophies, yogic traditions and concepts. It is designed to aid yoga practioners who seek the deeper meaning of yoga's symbols and metaphoric language. It may be utilized as guide for understanding the precision and subtle associations of Sanskirt words found in yoga publications.
The Sanskirt glossary with English translation reveals the deep significance of yogic terms through word structure meaning scriptural references and original Devanagri script Selected pictures illustrate the text.
This Sanskrit Glossary of yogic terms is designed to help yoga practioners and students who are student who are studying yoga along with its allied philosophies and texts without formal knowledge vocabulary but this needs to be continually expanding, not only in the number of words known, but in appreciation of the words. This glossary is intended to help achieve this understanding.
How to find a word
In this edition therefore the alphabetical order is the one used in English (Roman script) rather than that of Sanskrit (Devanagri script), so it is easier for English speakers to find a word. However to show connections between words they are arranged in family groups. A parent word may have several derivatives indented (alphabetically) underneath it before the major alphabetical listing resumes. This grouping is followed except where the families are too big (the Pra family for example) or the relationship ambivalent or ambiguous; in such cases the family grouping has been dropped.
How to read the entries
The Sanskrit words spelled as they are found in Standard English books are listed alphabetically in bold print. Where necessary, this is followed by a partial transliteration/in oblique strokes/which distinguishes long short vowels:
If it is a complex word made by simply attaching two or more short words together the conjunction point (Sandhi) is shown by a hyphen:
This clarifies the constituent parts. If the conjunctions are complex, they are deciphered (in brackets) according to the grammatical rules of conjunction:
jyotirdhyana /Jyotirdhyaana/ (Jyotih-dhyaana).
The meaning of the word and sometimes its mythological historical or philosophical context follows:
Jyotirdhyana Jyotirdhyaana/ (Jyotih-dhyaana); meditation on light.
To enlarge the understanding of a word references to other words contained in this glossary sometimes follows the main entry.
Jyotirdhyana/ Jyotirdhyaana/ (Jyotih-dhyaana); meditation on light; see Dhyana.
Pictures have been used to illustrate the concepts.
How Devanagri is integrated
Although familiarity with the Devanagri script is not essential to use this glossary successfully, each entry ends with the word in Devanagri.
Jyotirdhana/Jyotirdhyaana/ (Jyotih-dhyaana); meditation on light; see Dhyana.
Also before the listing of each English letter begins the corresponding Devanagri letters that will start the Sanskrit words included within that section are presented along with a guide on how to pronounce them. For example:
How to use this glossary
In order to use this glossary effectively please note the following points about its construction:
The Phonetic Pronunciation Guide on page viii explains how the transition from Devanagri to Roman script has been managed. Distinction has been made between long and short vowels. Diacritic marks have not been used in this edition so it is not possible to distinguish between the dental and palatal 'd/dh' or 't/th', the different types of 'n' etc. This makes things simpler for beginners and such distinctions have been ignored in the alphabetical order of the listing also.
The words in bold type are listed in English alphabetical order, not according to the Sanskrit 'alphabetical order. Whether the original bold entry consists of one two or more words it is treated as a single whole unit as far as this alphabetical order is concerned.
The bold entry gives the spelling of the word commonly used in English texts. The /oblique stokes/ contain a pronunciation guide for vowels and reveal simple conjunctions of words i.e. simple Sandhi. The (brackets) decipher more complex Sandhi conjunctions.
Generally words clearly related to a parent word are indented belonging under it in a family group, e.g. all the words belonging to Jyoti are grouped together. Each family group is itself in English alphabetical order. After each family group the alphabetical order of the main listing resumes.
How to spell Sanskrit that are becoming English
For words that bare becoming increasingly used in their original form in English texts the commonly used spelling of the Sanskirt terms are most often employed both in the alphabetical listing and when the meanings of the words are being explained. The following points should also be noted:
There are words for which two spellings in English are now common, e.g. mooladhara and muladhara. Both spellings will be found in the main listing. One will give the meanings of the word.
Muladhara/Moola-aadhaara/ base position, root foundation.
The order spelling will give the alternate's reference:
Dual and plural forms of Sanskrit words have usually been given by simply adding 's' as though they are English words for example guna becomes gunas. Otherwise they are left in their form.
The English languages spellings conventions have usually been followed when making an adjective from a noun e.g. from the noun yoga comes the adjective yogic similarly tamas gives tamasic (not tamasika), veda gives vedic gives vedic (not vaidika)
The kernel of the project was given by Sri Swami Satyananda and it has been nurtured by Swami Niranjanananda. Many people have worked together to assemble this glossary and we hope it is useful to many people.
Phonetic Pronunciation Guide viii
Sanskrit Glossary of Yogic Terms 1
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